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A Sovereign Republic, fundamental

12. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment :-

  1. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
  2. No citizen shall , on ground only of religion , race , cast , descent , place  of birth , residence or any of them be ineligible for, or discriminated against  in respect of any employment or office under the State.
  3. Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing , in regard to a class or class or classes of employment or appointment  to an office under the Government  of, or any local or other authority within , a state or union territory , any requirement as to residence within that State or union territory prior to such employment or appointment.
  4. Nothing in this article shall prevent the state from making any provision for the reservation of appointment or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which in the opinion of the state , is not adequately represented in the services under the State.
  5. Nothing in this article shall prevent the state from making any provision for reservation in matters of promotion , with consequential seniority of the scheduled castes and the Scheduled tribes which , in the opinion of the state , are not adequately represented in the services under the State.
  6. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from considering any unfilled vacancies of a year which are reserved for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for reservation made under clause.
  7. As a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up for determining  the ceiling of fifty per cent. Reservation on total number of vacancies of that Year.
  8. Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution  or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination.    
  9.   Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. –
  10. All laws on force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this constitution , in so far as they are inconsistency ,  be void
  11. The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall , to the extent of the contravention , be void.
  12. In this includes any ordinance , order , bye law , rule , regulation , notification ,custom or usage having in the territory of India the force of law.
Laws in force includes laws passed or made by a legislature or other competent authority in the territory of India before the commencement of this constitution and not previously repealed , notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in operation either at all or in particular areas.
Independent of Country
Government of India Act & Integration
A Unique Document

Continuity With The Past and Judicial Review

Emergency Powers

The Difference Between The Act of 1935 and The Present Constitution

important articles
Union Territories
Right of Citizenship
Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Directive Principles of State Policy
Powers , Privileges and Immunities
Conduct of business
Administrative Relations

unless the context otherwise requires

The Scheduled and Tribal areas
Emergency Provisions
Miscellaneous