A Sovereign Republic, fundamental

2. A  Sovereign   Republic ,Citizens Secular State, fundamental:- The  Preamble to the constitution declares India to be a sovereign democratic republic. Sovereignty of India is reflected from the fact that India is not subject to external control in its domestic or independent country does not debar it from embracing the membership of other states or association of other states, with a view  to promote the mutual interests and further the cause of peace. Hence India sought the membership of the U.N.O. and Commonwealth of Nations. The constitution of India on the other hand unlike that of U.S.A and like that of Canada and Burma introduces single citizenship. There is no such thing as the citizenship of a state. Every Indian is entitled to the same rights, wherever he may live in India. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar pointed out in the constituent Assembly, There is only one citizenship for the whole of India. It  is India citizenship. There is no state citizenship. Every Indian has the same right of citizenship, no matter in what state he resides. The state does not denyto any person equality before the low or equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Another distinctive feature of the new constitution is its secular character. In fact this is a remarkable departure from the primitive Indian polity, the theocratic state of the Muslim period and the communal polity fostered by British Imperialists particularly on the their withdrawal from India. The framers of the Indian constitution were aware of the nasty role played by fanaticism. According to Mahatma Gandhi Father of the Nation, The state should undoubtedly be secular. Everyone living  in it should be entitled to profess his religion without let or hindrance so long as the citizen obeyed the common law of land.  A secular state maintains complete religious neutrality and refuses to recognize man-made barriers such as those of race, colour, creed, etc. It believes in freedom, toleration, equality and the oneness of all the individuals. It is concerned with the relation between man and his creator. In the words of Shri Laxmi Kant Mahita, a member of the Indian Constituent Assembly, ‘ by a secular state, as I understand it, is meant that the state is not going to make any discrimination whatsoever on the ground of religion or community against any person professing any particular form of religious faith. The incorporation of  formal bill of right in the Indian constitution is deemed to be a distinguishing feature of a democratic state. One of the outstanding characteristics of the Indian constitution is the elaborate enumeration of the right of the citizens in chapter. The 24th and the 25th amendments in the Indian constitution which abridged right to private property were upheld by Supreme Court in its recent most decision. The Indian constitution is good and the incorporation of formal bill of right in the Indian constitution. Everyone living  in it should be entitled to profess his religion without let or hindrance so long as the citizen obeyed the common law of land. 

Independent of Country
Government of India Act & Integration
A Unique Document

Continuity With The Past and Judicial Review

Emergency Powers

The Difference Between The Act of 1935 and The Present Constitution

important articles
Union Territories
Right of Citizenship
Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Directive Principles of State Policy
Powers , Privileges and Immunities
Conduct of business
Administrative Relations

unless the context otherwise requires

The Scheduled and Tribal areas
Emergency Provisions